Connecticut is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Portions of southwestern Connecticut are also considered part of the New York metropolitan area. Connecticut is the 29th most populous state with 3.4 million residents and ranked 48th in size by area, making it the 4th most densely populated state. Called the "Constitution State", Connecticut has a long history dating from the early colonial times, and was influential in the development of early American government.
While Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutch, the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English. Thomas Hooker led a band of followers overland from the Massachusetts Bay colony and founded what would become the Connecticut Colony; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the Saybrook Colony and the New Haven Colony. Both the Connecticut and New Haven Colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in North America. In 1662, the disparate colonies merged under a royal charter, making Connecticut a crown colony. This colony was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution.
Connecticut enjoys a temperate climate thanks to its long coastline on the Long Island Sound. This has given the state a strong maritime tradition. Modern Connecticut is also known for its wealth. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Connecticut had ready access to raw materials which helped to develop a strong manufacturing industry. In the 19th and 20th centuries, financial organizations flourished: first insurance companies in Hartford, then hedge funds along the Gold Coast. This prosperity has helped give Connecticut the highest per capita income and median household income in the country.